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Not only poets may respond to a work of visual art with a creative act in their own medium, transposing the style and structure, the message and metaphors from the visual to the verbal.
Composers, more and more frequently in our century, are also exploring this interartistic mode of transfer. Although the musical medium is reputedly abstract, composers, just like poets, can respond in many different ways to a visual representation.
They may transpose aspects of both structure and content; they may supplement, interpret, respond with associations, problematize, or play with some of the suggestive elements of the original image.
Central questions concern the definition of musical ekphrasis in relation to "program music," and music's ability to narrate or portray extra-musical realities, i.
In a second section, I attempt to position musical ekphrasis within the grid of interartistic interactions laid out by Hans Lund, and address some central issues of terminology in research on musical ekphrasis. Next I draw on three groups of symphonic compositions and two hybrid works one pairing music with dance, the other with a biblical textall composed in response to works of visual art, in order to attempt an assessment of the possible scope and limitations of the undertaking to reflect images in tones.
To concretize the idea of correspondence between pictorial and musical configurations, I conclude with a comparative case study. My overall aim in this essay is thus threefold: Among the possible pairings between two art forms that express themselves in different sign systems verbal, pictorial, sonic, kinetic, etc.
And in fact, the most securely established terminology is found in a field that has experienced a significant revival in recent years: The literary topos through which a poem or any other verbal text addresses itself to the visual arts has received much attention in recent years and been subjected to intense scrutiny.
Jean Hagstrum, in a seminal book that may well have triggered the enthusiastic revival and the cluster of treatments of the topic in the literary debate of the past two decades, delineates the term ekphrasis in the context of what he refers to as "iconic poetry," as relating "to that special quality of giving voice and language to the otherwise mute art object" Hagstrum Hagstrum builds not only on Spitzer but also on Julius Schlosser-Magnino Another angle was emphasized by Murray Krieger, who speaks of "the imitation in literature of a work of plastic art" and of poems that "in imitating a plastic object in language and time, make that object in its spatial simultaneity a true emblem of itself" Krieger : Following this direction of thought, Peter Wagner points out that ekphrasis, both as a poetical and rhetorical device and as a literary genre, is Janus-faced; "as a form of mimesis, it stages a paradoxical performance, promising to give voice to the allegedly silent image even while attempting to overcome the power of the image by transforming and inscribing it" Wagner For his discussion of mimesis in art, particularly concerning the relation between representation, illusion, and fiction, he draws on Kendall Walton ; Walton's work, while not explicitly dealing with the notion of ekphrasis, is germane to my concern here, not least because he has since turned to explorations of the representational nature of music: The phenomenon of ekphrasis is typically traced back to Homer's description of the shield of Achilles in the Iliad.
As a rhetorical device, Peter Wagner In the sense of the interart genre that interests us here, Murray Krieger dates the birth of a reflection on ekphrasis to the third century. As he reminds us Krieger Moreover, the first examples of the budding new genre, written in the last years of the nineteenth century, were mostly not distinguished from the broader category of "program music.
Musical compositions with explicit reference- whether verbal, in titles and accompanying notes, or onomatopoeic-have existed for much of the history of Western music from the many keyboard works about balmy or inclement weather or battle scenes, collected in Victorian drawing-room anthologies, through Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony to Richard Strauss's Symphonia domestica1 ; yet, I claim, musical ekphrasis is a distinct and as such much more recent phenomenon.
An important task in approaching the subject matter of this study, then, is that of formulating the criteria by which we can differentiate between musical ekphrasis and what is generally known as "program music. While it is possible to employ "program music" as an umbrella term for both kinds, I will argue that it is not only meaningful but essential for a full understanding of music of the "ekphrastic" kind to distinguish it from the more generic expression.
One way of locating the difference is to ask whose idea of reality is being represented. Musical ekphrasis, by contrast, narrates or paints stories or scenes created by an artist other than the composer of the music, and in another artistic medium.
Furthermore, musical ekphrasis typically relates not only to the content of the poetically or pictorially conveyed source text, but usually also to one of the aspects distinguishing the mode of primary representation-its style, its form, its mood, a conspicuous arrangement of details, etc.
The distinction may emerge fully when it is rephrased in analogy to one made in literary theory: For the purpose of this essay, the primary medium transmedialized by a composer will always be that of the visual arts.Between Logic and Intuition: Essays in Honor of Charles Parsons, Chapter 3 The aim of this essay is to show that the subject-matter of ontology is richer than one might have thought.
But here we shall see that there is a special kind of tension between regimenting our discourse in a first-order language and allowing our quantifiers to.
(), Did Tarski Commit Tarski's Fallacy?, The Journal of Symbolic Logic 61, ↑ Sher, Gila. (), Is There a Place for Philosophy in Quine's Theory?, The Journal of Philosophy 96, He's mighty thick with Parson Dale, and your honor knows as how the Parson set his face agin the stocks.
"The International Magazine, Volume 2, No. 2, January, " by Various She comes from California, and she was on to visit the Parsons last spring. Kurt Gödel, Essays for His Centennial Solomon Feferman, Charles Parsons, Steven G.
Simpson, editors Kurt Gödel (–) did groundbreaking work that transformed logic and other important aspects of our understanding of mathematics, especially .
Epistemic Friction: An Essay on Knowledge, Truth, and Logic (Oxford, ) Between Logic and Intuition: Essays in Honor of Charles Parsons.
Co-editor, with R. Tieszen. LOGIC, METHODOLOGY, AND webkandii.com OF SCIENCE Managing Editor: debate about issues in Kantian mathematics between Charles Parsons and Jaakko Hintikka.
The debate, which was fascinating in its own right, - each Essays in Honor 0/ Ernest Nagel, , St. Martin's Press.