Management Needs Management needs means the nature and degree to which the following are required to enable the student to benefit from instruction:
In cases of traumatic brain injury TBIwhere an individual is suspected of having experienced a disruption in cognitive functioning, a referral for neuropsychological evaluation often will be made in order to determine the nature and extent of any cognitive changes that may have occurred.
Such information is valuable for tracking the course of recovery, guiding treatment and compensatory strategies and assisting in discharge planning. This article discusses an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation: Methods of Evaluation In evaluating an individual with a suspected brain injury, the neuropsychologist makes use of a variety of psychometric tests.
These tests either have been specifically developed to assess for cerebral impairment e. Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery, HRB or have been routinely employed in such a manner as to allow for the determination of deficient cognitive functioning e.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, now in its third edition. Without some standard of comparison, however, test results in and of themselves would be little more than meaningless numbers. In general, two standards of comparison are employed: The adequacy of the comparison between the individual being evaluated and the normative group being employed is crucial and places limitations on the type of conclusions that may be drawn and the certainty one may have in them.
For instance, knowing that the above 2nd percentile performance occurred on the entrance examination for Mensa and that the "normative" comparison group was all current and past Mensa members, might alter the interpretation of the score as a reflection of brain impairment.
Ideally, one would directly compare post-injury test results against results obtained from those very same tests administered some time prior to the injury.
While this situation potentially does exist for military personnel participating in the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program DVHIPit is a rare occurrence for pre-injury testing to exist in nonmilitary settings.
Unfortunately, this standard is frequently applied incorrectly or neglected entirely. Similarly, Matarazzo wrote that too often the psychological practitioner relies solely on data gathered from test results and fails to consider and integrate other important sources of data.
Using only the normative standard of comparison can result in erroneous conclusions. For example, it is not unusual to assess an individual with a superior pre-injury level of cognitive ability whose post-injury scores now fall within the average range.
While such results may be considered "within normal limits" from a statistical standpoint, these average scores clearly represent a loss in functioning for that individual.
To illustrate, "average" ability in the area of information processing speed may be adequate for a person employed in a position that is repetitive or where rapid appraisal, integration and utilization of new information is not required.
It may not be adequate, however, for someone working as an air traffic controller or a trauma surgeon. Methods of Premorbid Estimation Vanderploeg divides the methods of estimating premorbid functioning into four basic approaches: The first of these methods involves information collected through clinical interview and review of available records.
Typically, the clinical interview will cover such areas as educational achievements and work accomplishments; marriage, family and social functioning; and medical and psychological histories.Cognitive tests can be used to identify acquired or developmental cognitive impairment, to determine the level of functioning of an individual relative to typically functioning same-aged peers, or to assess an individual's functional capacity for everyday tasks (Freedman and Manly, ).
Clearly, each of these purposes could be relevant for SSA disability determinations. Consequently, assessing an individual's cognitive functioning is paramount for identifying the presence of specific pathological conditions, such as dementia and delirium, for monitoring the effectiveness of various health interventions, and for determining and individual's readiness to learn and ability to make decisions (Foreman & Vermeersch.
INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN COGNITIVE FUNCTION.
is of considerable interest to researchers and to the increasing numbers of older people who want to ensure that their cognitive functioning remains intact well into their later years.
Changes in Cognitive Function in Human Aging - Brain Aging.
Your browsing activity is empty. Functional Assessment of Individuals with Cognitive Disabilities: A Desk Reference for Rehabilitation Michael McCue, Ph.D., CRC observation of cognitive behaviors in informal contacts with the individual, psychological and neuropsychological testing, vocational assessment, and simulations and observations in the natural to determine.
The following are descriptions of the abilities and deficits that impact mental capacity when a person is performing at Allen Cognitive Levels, 5-, 4+ and 4- Capacity and Stages of Dementia. FAST stage 3, Allen level 5-This stage is not classified as a stage of dementia, but .
cognitive assessment instruments to accurately determine the stage of dementia in which the individual is functioning. Claudia Allen designed “The Allen Battery” and Dr. Barry Reisberg.